Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillators characteristics are represented by the relationship between the output angular frequency ω0 and the input control voltage uc (Fig. 1). In the figure, the angular frequency ω0,0 when uc is zero is called the free oscillation angular frequency; the slope K0 of the curve at ω0,0 is called control sensitivity. In communications or measuring instruments, the input control voltage is the signal (modulation signal) to be transmitted or measured. People often refer to voltage controlled oscillators as frequency modulators to generate FM signals. In automatic frequency control loops and phase-locked loops, the input control voltage is the error signal voltage and the VCO is a controlled component in the loop.
The types of voltage controlled oscillators are LC voltage controlled oscillators, RC voltage controlled oscillators, and crystal voltage controlled oscillators. The technical requirements for voltage-controlled oscillators are: good frequency stability, high control sensitivity, wide frequency range, linear relationship between frequency offset and control voltage, and suitable for integration. The frequency stability of the crystal voltage controlled oscillator is high, but the frequency modulation range is narrow; the RC voltage controlled oscillator has a low frequency stability and wide tuning range, and the LC voltage controlled oscillator is between the two.
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